- Project database
- Mediterranean Union
- Horizon 2020
- 5+5 Water Strategy
- Halting Desertification in the Jucar River Basin (HALT-JÚCAR-DES)
Implementation of EU
Water Framework Directive in Spain, France and Italy
General WFD principles have been practised in these three countries for years, even decades. The Directive itself however imposes a more strict and coherent framework.
Agriculture will undergo the following constraints under the Directive:
- an obligation for dialogue with competing water resource uses with the objective of maintaining a healthy state of resources
- more rigorous management of irrigation particularly regarding ground water usage
- more rational use of fertilisers and pesticides with the
objective of maintaining ground and surface water quality
- increased financial participation in water management.
The Directive applies uniformly to all countries of the European Union. Characteristics specific to Mediterranean areas are likely to make its application more difficult:
- a climate with contrasting seasons gives rise to a very irregular hydrological system for fresh surface water
- a significant proportion of karstic ground water whose characteristics are very different to ground water in porous environments
- agriculture that is highly dependent on irrigation (often the dominant water use); irrigation needs appear during periods when water resources are least abundant
- a large tourist industry that consumes a significant amount of water during periods of low water levels; tourism contributes to water pollution whilst simultaneously increasing demand on high quality water (drinking water, bathing, water sports
- large hydraulic installations (built to harness irregular water supplies in order to satisfy demand) that are themselves prone to strong seasonal variations.